Using Whitelisting to control file access in Apache Webserver

The aim

You want to control which files on your webserver can be accessed by whom, but you don’t want to use blacklisting. You want to say, i.e., external users can access files whose names end with .php, .jpg and .png. All other files must not be accessible, no matter which name they have.

You can use LocationMatch and FilesMatch to control access to files. In this example, we will use FilesMatch, because we care about files which are stored on the filesystem. But the same approach also applies to files, which are generated when requested.

The problem

When apache finds a FilesMatch entry in its configuration which matches the requested filename, the corresponding rules are applied. There is no problem with that as long as you do not try to create a catch-all rule, such as

<FilesMatch "^.*$">
Require all denied

<FilesMatch "^.+\.(php|jpg|png)$">
Require all allowed

Clearly, the first rule applies to all files. It also does not make a difference if you change the order of both entries. So, the above configuration always returns 403.

The solution

Unfortunately, regular expressions do not support a special syntax for negative matches. You cannot say “everything that doesn’t matches XYZ”. But you can do something similar: Negative lookahead. Apache uses Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE) for FilesMatch and LocationMatch.

Consider the String index.php and the regex index.(?:php). Obviously, index. matches the first part of the filename. Then, something special happens. Apache tries to match the substring “php” to the regex (?:php) and succeeds. Lookahead means that no characters of the string are consumed and thus do not belong to the matched string. In the example, the matched string would be index.; as long as it is followed by php.

We now use negative lookahead to not deny access to all file extensions we want to be accessible:


This regular expression applies to all files whose name does not end with php, jpg, png. But be aware, this also matches to index.php itself, because the first part of the expression, ^.*[^.], matches to index.php and the negative lookahead part matches to every zero-length string. To prevent this, we enforce the negative lookahead to consume those three characters that did not match the expression, by appending .{3,3} to it. The resulting setting is:

<FilesMatch "^.*[^.](?!\.(php|jpg|png)).{3,3}$">
Require all denied

Author: Fuseki

Fuseki has started his career as software developer, but quickly switched over to network administration. After 7 years as network engineer, incl. one year in a management position, he entered a new team, working as penetration tester and security consultant. In addition to this, malware analysis and digital forensics are becoming more and more part of Fusekis daily work. Fuseki has studied Information Technology as well as Software Technology and holds a diploma in each of these.

One thought on “Using Whitelisting to control file access in Apache Webserver”

  1. Hi, i just stumbled into your code, it works great! I mean this

    FilesMatch “^.*[^.](?!\.(php|jpg|png)).{3,3}$”
    Thank you.

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